Research methodology: Important topic for Net Exam

Define Research –

Research is quest for knowledge and a process to find something new done in systematic, organized process.  It is used both in scientific and non-scientific field. In a practical way, it a systemized way of finding practical solution to new problems, events, phenomena and processes that arises every day and practically implementing solution and suggestion required to tackle that problem.

Classification of Research

Basic or Fundamental research – It is broadly classified into two main types of research.   It also knows as theoretical research and study of some natural phenomenon.  . Basic researches sometimes may not lead to immediate use or application. It is not concerned with solving any practical problems of immediate interest. It provides a systematic and deep insight into a problem and facilitates extraction of scientific and logical explanation and conclusion on it. It helps build new frontiers of knowledge. The outcomes of basic research form the basis for many applied research.

Key points of Basic Research is

  • Aims at basic processes
  • Attempts to explain why things happen
  • Tries to get all the facts
  • Reports in technical language of the topic
  • Seeks generalization

Applied Research
In an applied research one solves certain problems employing well known and accepted theories and principles. Most of the experimental research, case studies and inter-disciplinary research are essentially applied research. Applied research is helpful for basic research. A research, the outcome of which has immediate application is also termed as applied research. Such a research is of practical use to current activity.

Applied research

  • Studies individual or specific cases without the objective to generalize
  • Aims at any variable which makes the desired difference
  • Tries to say how things can be changed
  • Tries to correct the facts which are problematic
  • Reports in common language

Quantitative research

  • It is numerical, non-descriptive, applies statistics or mathematics and uses numbers.
  • It is an iterative process whereby evidence is evaluated.
  • The results are often presented in tables and graphs.
  • It is conclusive.
  • It investigates the what, where and when of decision making.

Qualitative research

  • It is non-numerical, descriptive, applies reasoning and uses words.
  • Its aim is to get the meaning, feeling and describe the situation.
  • Qualitative data cannot be graphed.
  • It is exploratory.
  • It investigates the why and how of decision making.

Mixed research-

Research is a research that involves the mixing of quantitative and qualitative methods or paradigm characteristics. Nature of data is mixture of variables, words and images.

Other types of research are

Exploratory research

  • Its primary goal is to understand or to explain relationships.
  • It uses correlations to study relationships between dimensions or characteristics off individuals, groups, situations, or events.

Explanatory research

  • Its primary goal is to understand or to explain relationships.
  • It uses correlations to study relationships between dimensions or characteristics off individuals, groups, situations, or events.

Longitudinal Research

Research carried out longitudinally involves data collection at multiple points in time.

Cross-sectional Research

It is Research is research in which data is gathered at once during a period of days, weeks or months.

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