History of Internet…

internet is a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. the full form of the internet is  Interconnected Network, firstly the Internet has its origin in the efforts to build and interconnect computer networks that arose from research and development in the United States and involved international collaboration, particularly with researchers in the United Kingdom and France.

Fundamental theoretical work in data transmission and information theory was developed by Claude Shannon, Harry Nyquist, and Ralph Hartley in the early 20th century. Information theory, as enunciated by Shannon in 1948, provided a firm theoretical underpinning to understand the trade-offs between signal-to-noise ratio, bandwidth, and error-free transmission in the presence of noise, in telecommunications technology. With so many different network methods, something was needed to unify them. Robert E. Kahn of DARPA and ARPANET recruited Vinton Cerf of Stanford University to work with him on the problem. By 1973, they had worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and instead of the network being responsible for the reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible. Cerf credits Hubert Zimmermann and Louis Pouzin designer of the CYCLADES network and his graduate students Judy Estrin, Richard Karp, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine with important work on this design.

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During the first decade or so of the public Internet, the immense changes it would eventually enable in the 2000s were still nascent. In terms of providing context for this period, mobile cellular devices like smartphones and other cellular devices, which today provide near-universal access, were used for business and not a routine household item owned by parents and children worldwide. Social media in the modern sense had yet to come into existence, laptops were bulky and most households did not have computers. Data rates were slow and most people lacked means to video or digitize video; media storage was transitioning slowly from analog tape to digital optical discs (DVD and to an extent still, floppy disc to CD). Enabling technologies used from the early 2000s such as PHP, modern JavaScript, and Java, technologies such as AJAX, HTML 4, and various software frameworks, which enabled and simplified speed of web development, largely awaited invention and their eventual widespread adoption.

The Internet was widely used for mailing lists, emails, e-commerce and early popular online shopping (Amazon and eBay for example), online forums and bulletin boards, and personal websites and blogs, and use was growing rapidly, but by more modern standards the systems used were static and lacked widespread social engagement. It awaited a number of events in the early 2000s to change from a communications technology to gradually develop into a key part of global society’s infrastructure.

The first Internet link into low earth orbit was established on January 22, 2010, when astronaut T. J. Creamer posted the first unassisted update to his Twitter account from the International Space Station, marking the extension of the Internet into space..) This personal Web access, which NASA calls the Crew Support LAN, uses the space station’s high-speed Ku band microwave link. To surf the Web, astronauts can use a station laptop computer to control a desktop computer on Earth, and they can talk to their families and friends on Earth using Voice over IP equipment.

Communication with spacecraft beyond earth orbit has traditionally been over point-to-point links through the Deep Space Network. Each such data link must be manually scheduled and configured. In the late 1990s, NASA and Google began working on a new network protocol, Delay-tolerant networking which automates this process, allows networking of spaceborne transmission nodes, and takes the fact into account that spacecraft can temporarily lose contact because they move behind the Moon or planets, or because space weather disrupts the connection. Under such conditions, DTN retransmits data packages instead of dropping them, as the standard TCP/IP Internet Protocol does. NASA conducted the first field test of what it calls the “deep space internet” in November 2008. Testing of DTN-based communications between the International Space Station and Earth has been ongoing since March 2009 and is scheduled to continue until March 2014.

As the Internet grew through the 1980s and early 1990s, many people realized the increasing need to be able to find and organize files and information. Projects such as Archie, Gopher, WAIS, and the FTP Archive list attempted to create ways to organize distributed data. In the early 1990s, Gopher, invented by Mark P. McCahill offered a viable alternative to the World Wide Web. However, in 1993 the World Wide Web saw many advances to indexing and ease of access through search engines, which often neglected Gopher and Gopherspace. As popularity increased through the ease of use, investment incentives also grew until in the middle of 1994 the WWW’s popularity gained the upper hand. Then it became clear that Gopher and the other projects were doomed to fall short.

In recent years, it’s become very clear that the internet is key to living in the modern age. Basically, everyone is expected to have an internet connection and everyone is expected to use that internet on a daily basis. The idea of doing something as simple as finding work without the internet is alien to most Europeans. I remember entering a job center in Norway and seeing the staff completely baffled and out of ideas when I informed them I was temporarily out of the internet. I also found it near impossible to manage here without some form of daily internet access, I think everyone who has been without it for more than a day will realize how much they rely on it, not just ‘want’ it.

However, when people think, “free internet” I don’t think they mean “we should have free WiFi hotspots everywhere.” I think they instead mean that you should not have to pay for WiFi to be wired to your house, and you should not be charged by a company to provide you the internet. I agree with this fully, the internet should not be a paid commodity like it’s simply something you can go without, it simply is too important. Like water and electricity, most developed countries monitor these services consistently and try to ensure they’re as cheap as possible, otherwise, the cost of surviving is simply too high, that’s why you can often find electricity and water for rather cheap prices. Internet, however, can be damned expensive, and the packages and contracts that must be signed are sometimes akin to signing a contract with the devil. Sometimes the companies won’t even deliver your modem, or they will purposely throttle you in order to ensure you upgrade your package. Internet providers can be, and often are, thieves, it’s almost completely unchecked.

In 2015, Google started the ‘Station’ program to bring free public Wi-Fi to 400 busiest railway stations in New Delhi, India, Google has decided to gradually wind down the service globally as it believes that better data plans and improving mobile connectivity have made it “simpler and cheaper” for users to get online. Google explained that it took the decision to end the program because it was becoming difficult to scale up and to make a sustainable business. The company had worked with various partners in each market where it offered the Station service, but each had different technical and infrastructure requirements. In India, it worked with RailTel, Indian Railways, and Pune Smart City, for example, while in South Africa it worked with Think WiFi. However, Google isn’t the only company to have tried to make it easier for users in developing markets to get online. Facebook founded the Internet.org project in 2013, and in 2016 it launched Express Wi-Fi In India after its previous internet service was banned in the country.