According to the American Psychological Association,Personality refers to an individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other is understanding how the various parts of a person come together as a whole.
So this blog will introduce the readers to some important theories used to describe personality.Let’s get started!
1) FREUD PSYCHOANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVE:
According to Sigmund Freud Father of Psychoanalysis, an adult personality generally has three determinants: Id, Ego and Super Ego.The outcome of the combination of all the three determinants shapes an adult personality. Freud believed than an individual’s personality has three parts and thus is often called as tripartite personality.
- Id:Irrational demands and urge.
- Ego:Helps in fulfillment of Id after taking into consideration the reality.
- Superego:Moral constraints of the individual.
Defense mechanisms play an important role in pushing unrealistic thoughts out of awareness. Stressful thoughts which are threatening to an individual’s survival should be pushed into unconscious mind to reduce anxiety through them.
2)ERIK ERIKSON:PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY:-
Erikson believes there are 8 stages in a person’s life and to enter into the next stage,a virtue has to be learnt from the previous stage and this leads to personality development.He focuses on different identity crisis in a person’s lifespan.As in
STAGE 1:Trust v/s Mistrust;Virtue:Hope
STAGE 2:Autonomy v/s Doubt;Virtue:Will
STAGE 3:Initiative v/s Guilt;Virtue:Sense of Purpose.
STAGE 4:Industriousness v/s Inferiorty;Virtue:Competence
STAGE 5:Identity cohesion v/s Role confusion;Virtue:Fidelity
STAGE 6:Intimacy v/s Isolation;Virtue:Love
STAGE 7:Generativity v/s Stagnation;Virtue:Care
STAGE 8:Ego Integrity v/s Despair;Virtue:Wisdom
3)CARL JUNG:INTOVERSION V/S EXTRAVERSION
Carl Jung established a theory, which saw universal types in human personality. The types categorized by Carl Jung are present in all of us. But, certain types are predominant over the normal mode of organizing our experience.Carl Jung also developed a theory of personality. His theory is one of the type theories of personality, as it involved typology of introversion and extraversion.There are 4 functions :Sensing,intuiting,thinking and feeling.
4)JULIAN ROTTER-LOCUS OF CONTROL
“Locus of Control.” For many people, their only exposure to the ideas of Julian B. Rotter is his concept of generalized expectancies for control of reinforcement, more commonly known as locus of control. Locus of control refers to people’s very general, cross-situational beliefs about what determines whether or not they get reinforced in life. People can be classified along a continuum from very internal to very external.
People with a strong internal locus of control believe that the responsibility for whether or not they get reinforced ultimately lies with themselves. Internals believe that success or failure is due to their own efforts. In contrast, externals believe that the reinforcers in life are controlled by luck, chance, or powerful others. Therefore, they see little impact of their own efforts on the amount of reinforcement they receive.
Thus we come to the end of the blog.This blog is aimed at introducing the readers to the world of personality analysis.However one must remember that human beings are complex and not one theory explains all the human behavior.The readers are requested to read more articles about the same and fill themselves with knowledge.
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