Competency mapping identifies an individual’s strengths and weaknesses. The aim is to enable the person to better understand himself or herself and to point out where career development efforts need to be directed.
Competencies are derived from specific job families within the organization and are often grouped around categories such as strategy, relationships, innovation, leadership, risk-taking, decision-making, emotional intelligence, etc. So far as the way to go about for competency mapping is concerned, the first step is job analysis, where the company needs to list core competency requirements for the job concerned. The next step should be development of a competency scale for the job on the parameters previously identified.
The actual mapping of employees can be a self-done exercise or done by others like superiors. It can also be done by using the 360-degree method where peers, first reports and customers also rate the employee.
Competency approach to job depends on competency mapping. Competency Mapping is a process to identify key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization. A competency is defined as a behavior (i.e. communication, leadership) rather than a skill or ability.
Competency is your ability to do something successfully or efficiently. Therefore, competency mapping is simply a process of matching your competence with the job role and/or organization. Furthermore, it is also about matching people to the job role and hence used even in selection.
Definition: Competency mapping is the process of identifying the specific skills, knowledge, abilities, and behaviors required to operate effectively in a specific job or organization. Competency maps are often also referred to as competency profiles or skills profiles.
Some of the major practical applications of competency mapping include :
Job Evaluation: By analyzing the key skills to required to do a job a simple job evaluation can be prepared. It can help in allocating existing or new resources to the specific job based on the evaluation process
Project Planning: What key tasks can be performed by what resources ject can easily be identified through the mapping process and helps in project planning.
A competency mapping exercise results in preparing Competency Framework, which in turn helps in allocating desired proficiency for the job vs current proficiency to do the job. By analyzing any gaps the performance management can be seamlessly conducted
Job analysis: By identifying the key behaviors required to perform each job role, competency mapping is really useful in preparing job analysis. Not to be confused by Job description step in competency mapping process where the job roles analyzed for allocating competencies and behaviors.
Succession Planning : The analysis of competencies required for a leadership role and mapping them with proficiency shown by potential leaders a clear roadmap for succession planning can be created.
Any developmental need can also be ascertained by mapping the critical competencies with the current proficiency level demonstrated by an individual vis-à-vis the required proficiency level for the position.
Recruitment: By identifying key skills required to do the job and also developing a competency-based interviewing process the organizations can benefit by hiring the most suitable resources while it helps in all stages of the recruitment process.
Individual development plan: Any gaps in desired and current proficiency levels help in developing individual development and learning roadmap for individuals and even job roles and categories.