MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE PART II

The next ruler to be in power after Babur was his son Humayun ( 1530-1540). He does not lay much effect on architecture as he had to stay in conflicts with Rajputs, afghans, for a long time. He tries to build Dinpanah city in Delhi, started to build but remains incomplete due to fighting with Sher Shah Suri where he got defeated.

Sher Shah Suri comes in power on 1540-1555. Qila-e-Quhunah, a mosque in Delhi s built by him. Rohtlas fort in Pakistan is a popular UNESCO world heritage site constructed during his period. Sher Shah Suri Masjid in Patna is a famous afghan style monument built with no Minars.  Sadak-e-Azam is popularly known as the Grand Trunk road is completed by him. A unique feature about the roads are the rest houses called, SARAIS were built between the roads for leisure activities.

Akbar took a keen interest in the development of art and architecture during his reign using red sandstone and marble. He introduced the use of Tudor architecture (four-centered style). Some prominent construction works undertaken by him were:  Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri, Humayun’s tomb, Hiran Minar, etc.

Agra Fort – built by Akbar, required 2000 stone- cutters, 2000 cement and lime makers, and 8000 laborers. The Agra gate contains Jaimal and Patta paintings to mark their bravery in war. Multiple buildings inside it- Diwani-i-am, Diwani-i-khass, Moti Masjid, Harem.

Fatehpur Sikri- 1) Buland Darwaza: built by Akbar to commemorate hid victory in the Deccan of Gujarat region.

2) Panch Mahal- famous due to the presence of the char bagh painting of Babur, five stories and have Persian influence with the impact of Buddhist architecture.

3) Ibadat khana- Scholars of different religions were used to come and discuss various issues here.

4) Salim Cistils Tomb- made from white marble, known for its jali work.

5) Hiran Minar- made in the memory of an elephant.

During the Jahangir period, architecture took a set back. He focussed more on paintings and other forms of art. He built Akbar’s and his tomb. Some famous creations- Shalimar Bagh in Kashmir, Moti Masjid in Lahore, Tomb of Itmad-ud-daulah. The development of gold coins was also done.

Shah Jahan’s reign witnessed a huge amount of construction activities, especially in Delhi and Agra. Ceremonial halls of the public and the private audience were carefully planned. These halls were called Chihil Sutun. Major construction were- Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Jama Masjid, complete shalimar bagh, city of Shahjahanabad, and Peacock Throne.

The development of architecture declines during Aurangzeb’s period as he shows no interest in monuments and forts. Biwi-ka-Maqbara was the only monument built by his son in the memory of his mother, in Aurangabad, Maharashtra.

Categories: Culture and History

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