The Mughal Empire administrated India and Pakistan In 16th and 17th centuries. They were Muslims who used to rule a country with Hinduism as majority tho they had given many rights to Hindus as well. Before their invasion India was divided into many small kingdoms of Hindus and Muslims and significantly the rich Jain businessmen were conscientious regarding the devotional arts and many beautiful manuscripts. Mughals fortified Islamic especially Persian Culture arts and beliefs in India.
The great grandson of Tamerlan and Genghis Khan was the first Mughal emperor in India. In 1526, he challenged and defeated Lodhi at the first Battle of Panipat, and then he came to establish the Mughal Empire in India. Babar ruled until 1530, replacing his son Humayun. The Mughal Dynasty developed out of the remnants of the Mongolian Emperor who lived in Turkestan in the 15th century. They have become Muslims and have assimilated the ideology of the Middle East, while retaining aspects of their Far Eastern origins.
They also maintained the great military ability and abilities of their Mongolian predecessors, and were among the first Western military figures to use weapons.
Mughals brought many significant changes in India and its administrative system such as:
- They introduced centralized government that brought together many kingdoms under one flag.
- Their one of the most germane contribution was Persian art and culture.
- They gifted India a unique style of architecture(examples are Taj Mahal).
- A system of education that took account of pupils’ needs
- Mughals had given rights and freedom to women.
- Akbar tried to put a ban on sati and encouraged widows’ remarriage and the creation of special markets for women to make them feel safe and more powerful.
- Basically they promoted a delegated government with respect for human rights.
Babur, the first Mughal Emperor, was a son of Genghis Khan and Tamerlain. Babur succeeded his father as ruler of the state of Farghana in Turkestan when he was just 12 years old, but he was soon deposed by older relatives. In 1504, Babur traveled to Afghanistan and then returned to India, presumably at the behest of some Indian princes who decided to dispose of their rulers. Babur had disposed of the king, and he wanted to take over himself.
Babur preceded his son Humayun, who was a poor dictator, a great author, and a heroin user. He soon destroyed the kingdom. He finally regained the throne, but died shortly after breaking his spine down the steps. Although Humayan was definitely catastrophic as a monarch, his love of poetry and culture profoundly inspired his son Akbar, and helped to make the Mughal Empire both an artistic and a military force.
The Third Emperor, Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, is considered to be one of the great rulers of all time , regardless of region. Akbar ascended the throne at the age of 13, and proceeded to recapture the remaining territories lost from the Babur Dynasty. At the time of his death in 1605 he ruled much of northern, southern, and western India. Akbar has worked tirelessly to take over the hearts and minds of the Hindu community. While this may well have been for political reasons-he married a Hindu princess (and is said to have married several thousand wives for military and diplomatic purposes)-it was also part of his ideology.
Akbar ‘s son, Emperor Jahangir, re-elected Islam as a state religion and followed a policy of religious freedom. His court comprised a considerable number of Indian Hindus, Persian Shi’a and Sufis, and members of central heterodox Islamic sects. Jahangir also started constructing the majestic temples and gardens that the Mughals are often known for today, hiring hundreds of Persian architects to build palaces and construct splendid gardens.
The architectural accomplishments of the Mughals occurred between 1592 and 1666 during the rule of Jahangir ‘s son, Jahan. The Taj Mahal was commissioned by Jahan. The Taj Mahal stands for the pinnacle of the Mughal Empire; it symbolizes peace, strength and trust. The building is a mausoleum designed by Jahan for his wife Mumtaz, and has come to symbolize the love between two persons.
The time of the Great Moguls, which started in 1526 with the accession of Babur to the throne, ended with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. Under Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire achieved the height of its military strength, but the law remained chaotic. This was partially attributable to the indifference of the people to the bigotry and taxes of Aurangazeb, but also because the kingdom had actually been too large to be ruled effectively. And, some fifty years after his passing, the Mughal Rule disintegrated. Aurangzeb ‘s death was preceded by a war of succession between his three sons.