Education is the fundamental way for achieving full human potential, developing an equitable and just society and promoting national development. Providing quality education universally to raise the literacy rate to its extent, the main motive and only key to boost economic growth, social justice and equality, scientific advancement, cultural advancement and nation’s integrity. Moreover its best way forward for developing and maximizing the country’s talent and utilizing it for good of the individual, the society, the country and for whole world. India is going to have world’s highest population of young people over the next decade, and our ability to provide worth education opportunities is going to decide the future of the nation.
Although today in the eve of technology, where machine learning , artificial intelligence are replacing humans with machines , the only person stands out is that which have something that makes it different from others . This gap of what we possess or current state of learning outcomes and what is required get bridged through undertaking change in reforms of education policy. The Education policy we were till relied on was designed and implemented in 1986 which somehow based on memorizing things i.e. the more you memorize the more scores you get.
But, under the purview of self reliant India and in respect with ongoing pandemic situations, to make Indians self sufficient, along with change in many fields the change in education policy is appreciable. In July 2020, “New Education Policy, 2020” [NEP] was approved by cabinet and it is based on the principle that education must develop not only cognitive capacities –both included foundational [literacy and numeracy] and high order thinking skills [critical reasoning and logics based] but also social, ethical, emotional and dispositions capacities too. This policy aims for the major overhaul of the Indian education system and under this it is expected that the education system will be completely transferred by 2040.
Positive Impacts on The Education System
- School years are changed from 10+2 format to 5+3+3+4 format which to be precise means that students get freedom of choosing their subjects in 9th standard and AISSCE get transferred to collages. And for the first time, Early childhood Care and education [ECCE] get included in education policy. This aims at achieve the gross enrollment ratio 100% in pre-schools to secondary education by 2035.
- To eliminate the rote learning and promotes the holistic development of the children, the present curriculum and pedagogy will be revamped to make it suitable for 21st century.
- Nutritious breakfast will be provided in addition to mid day meal to make students more focused and concentrates on studies.
- Vocational studies that impacts or improves employability chances as per trends among developed countries gets integrated to mainstream education which in previous policy considered as inferior subject.
- It purposed imparting emotional skills such as empathy, communication, perseverance, public speaking, leadership qualities and many more in students along with intellectual skills. NEP 2020 also stresses on encouraging creativity and innovativeness in students. they will be provided technology advancements knowledge, fundamental duties, social issues etc.
- “Right to Education” extended from 14 to 18 years.
- To increase gross enrollment ratio and access to education, Online Distance learning, MOOC [Massive open online courses] options are given adequate consideration.
- A regulatory system worked towards stooping the commercialization of education by increasing arbitrary fee.
- National Test agency (NTA) will conduct high quality common aptitude test for entrances in order to reduce multiple test logarithms.
- Teachers will be given “Continuous professional development “[CDP] for self improvement and to get more indulge or to bring more innovativeness in their existing approaches of teaching.
- Aims to increase gross enrollment ratio in higher education from 26% to 50% by 2030
- Many higher educations are providing only limited courses but with NEP, 2020 it integrates these institutes into multidisciplinary institutions by proving wide choices of subjects.
- It made degree flexible by proving entry and exit options to degree courses.
- India will be transformed as a global study destination by allowing TOP 100 universities of world to open colleges in India. And further no student will be deprived of education because of financial inability.
- “National Higher Education Regulatory Authority” [NHERA] will regulate all higher education institutes to eliminate duplicate regulatory efforts.
But a coin always has two sides; criticism comes always wherever positives come.
- It was provided that funding for the education will increased from 4.6% to 6% of GDP to in=implement NEP,2020. But this COVID outbreak impacted the economy so badly that increase funding share in any sector is a terrible thought itself.
- Mother tongue or local language as a medium of instruction was made mandatory till class 5th. This being criticized on the ground that English connects the whole world as its being spoken in many countries and somewhere it might impacts immigrants too.
- This policy mentioned online education but in India stilt ere are many people who don’t have access to digital devices and internet connection
- Poor infrastructure in educational institutions and shortage of teachers are not addressed.
- In general, some companies do not prefer recruiting the students that are graduated through distance learning courses. So, employability value of open learning courses should be addressed.
At present, the Indian education system is criticized by many due to many reasons such as its rote learning methods, outdated curriculum etc. India is ranking 35th in global education rankings of 2020. National Education Policy 2020 can completely change our education system for good because it crafted well according to the requirements of the 21st century. By 2030, India will have the largest population of youth. NEP 2020 helps in utilizing this demographic dividend. And It can also make India a knowledge hub of the world by attracting foreign students.