Energy indisputably a resource on which humanity has been dependent. Without energy, we cannot find or administer medicine to cure disease, prepare food, purify water, drive our cars etc. the current energy need is 15TW and this number is projected to increase.in nowadays we are more reliable on fossil fuel. Fossil fuels are also large source pollution and also a non-renewable source of energy. As solar energy is a renewable source of energy so we are likely to shift our energy consumption from the non-renewable forms to the renewable forms. Moreover, the energy of the sun which is received by our planet is approximately 835w/m2 which is more than the required amount for us to produce electricity for our use.
Solar energy is the conversion of energy from sunlight to electricity by use of photovoltaic cells or by directing or concentrating a large amount of solar beam into a small region. The concentrated solar system utilizes a wide range of solar lights into a small beam with lenses or mirrors and other tracking devices whereas photovoltaic cell uses the photoelectric phenomenon to convert sunlight into electricity.
A solar cell is a semiconductor which produces electricity when the ray consisting of photons of energy (hv) strikes the semiconductor and when the energy of photons crosses the threshold frequency there is a flow of electron inside the semiconductor which give rise to electricity. Solar cells can be classified into first, second and third generation cell. The first generation solar cells are also called conventional, traditional, or wafer based cells that include polysilicon material. Second generation are thin film solar cells that include amorphous silicon, CdTe and CIGS. The third generation of solar cell include a number of thin-film technologies often described as emerging technologies of the future which use organometallic compounds.
Concentrated solar energy is also referred to as “concentrated solar thermal,” uses the lentils or mirrors as well as tracking systems for concentrating sunlight. The most well-known are the parabolic pitcher, the compact linear Fresnel reflector, the Stirling platter. There are a number of concentrate technology. Different techniques for the tracking of light and sunlight are used. A working fluid is heated in all these systems through the concentrated solar radiation, which is then used for electricity generation or energy storage. A parabola consists of a linear parabola reflector, focusing light on the receiver located along the focus line of the reflector. The receiver is a tube located along the focal points and is filled with a working fluid in the linear parabolic mirror. In daylight hours, the reflector is designed to follow the sun by tracking a single axis. The best land use factor in solar technology are parabolic trough systems.
The rapidly developing industry in India is solar power. As of 30 June 2020, the country’s installed solar power was 35,122 MW. India’s global installation of solar power plants is the lowest capital cost per MW.
In India the Initial 20GW of capacity of producing of solar power which is to be achieved by 2022, reached four years ahead of schedule which had been set by the Government of India. By 2022, the target for 2015 had been increased by 100GW of solar capacity, including 40GW of solar rooftops. India has created nearly 42 solar parks in order to provide land for solar power plant developers.
The solar rooftop accounts for 2.1 GW, 70 per cent of which is industry and trade. India is now developing off-grid solar power to meet local energy requirements in addition to its large-scale PV grid-connected initiative Solar products have helped increasingly respond to rural need; just under a million solar lanterns were sold in the country by the end of 2015, reducing the need of kerosene. In that year, the national programme included a total of 118,700 solar home lighting systems, 46,655 solar street lighting systems, and over 1,4 million solar cookers distributed throughout India.
The calculated solar incidence on India’s land area is approximately 5000 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year (or 5 EWh / YR) with approximately 300 clear and sunny days per year. The available solar energy in a single year exceeds all Indian fossil fuel energy reserves’ potential energy output. The average capacity for the production of solar plants is 0.30 kWh per m2 of the land used, equivalent to 1400–1800 peak (rating) hours of operation per year with market-tested technology.