The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to indimate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
India has already been ranked among the top ten terrorism affected countries including states such as Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Tripura, Assam, Nagaland and Manipur. • There are other states also which have been victims of Naxalite terrorism.
CAUSES OF TERRORISM IN INDIA
• In India ,terrorism can be classified in 3 distinct parts: . Cross border terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir. . Terrorism in the hinterland. . Extreme violence and terrorism as an integral part of the ongoing insurgencies.
• In a richly diverse society, politics of communalism and criminalisation, fanatic religious movements and irresponsible statements by political leaders, marginalised minority communities, high levels of youth unemployment, poverty, illiteracy etc. Provide an ideal fertile ground for terrorism to take root and thrive in India. India also remains highly vulnerable to terrorism by foreign terrorists, due to porous borders with all its neighbours and a long coast line.
• As a result, the terrorists and insurgents continue to receive material support and funds from a number of sources.
• India has experienced all kinds of terrorist attacks like hijacking and blowing up of aircrafts, the assassination of 2 of its prime ministers etc.
• Political cause: primary source of terrorism in India. For example, this ia primarily seen in Tripura and Assam. The political factors that resulted in terrorism included the failure of the government to control and manage large scale immigrants from Bangladesh.
• Economic cause: Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh are prime examples. The economic factors include rural unemployment, exploitation of landless labourers by those who own land. These economic perceptions and grievances of gross social injustice have led to the rise of ideological groups of terrorists.
• Religious causes: these are also primary sources of terrorism. In Punjab, some elements of Sikh belonging to different organisations shifted to terrorism to the development of an independent state known as Khalistan for Sikhs.
• State-sponsored terrorism: which consists of terrorist acts on a state or government by a state or a government.
• Dissent-terrorism: which are terrorist groups that dissent against their government.
• Terrorists and the left and the right: which are the groups rooted in political ideologies.
• Religious terrorism: terrorists groups that are extremely religiously motivated.
• Criminal terrorism: terrorists acts used to aid in crime and criminal profit.
Terrorism can undermine political moderation in a democracy, paving the way for more extreme elements to gain footholds. The death toll of a terrorist attack ,often inflicted in a spectacular way that draws media attention and leads to political criticism, can undermine faith in government. The secular, pluralistic, ethnically diverse, and vibrant democracy that India has nurtured ever since its independence on 1947 has become the envy of many radical and extremist ideologies.
IMPACT OF TERRORISM
Firstly, it creates a state of panic amongst the citizens. The bomb blasts or firing impacts the mental health of the people. Terrorist attacks create a sense of doubt in the foreign investors of India. This causes a huge blow to the business of India depending upon them. Thus, it damages the economy. As terrorist attacks cause loss of life and property, the replenishment takes up a lot of capital. There are political effects of terrorism in India. The killing of ex prime ministers of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, by terrorists ,effected Indian politics and economy at large. Due to 26/11 Mumbai attack , Home minister Mr. Shivraj Patil, chief minister Vilasrao Deshmukh had to resign. This unstabilized the Indian industry. The financial markets have been directly and indirectly the victims of terrorist attacks. In the aftermath of attacks, the financial markets were not only confronted with major activity disruptions caused by the massive damage to property and communication systems, but also with rising levels of uncertainty and market volatility.
STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY INDIAN AGENCIES FIGHTING TERROR.
NIA : A central government investigative agency to probe terror attacks in the country ,created by an act of the parliament of India on December 31,2008, following the Mumbai terror attack of November 2008. Full form is National Investigation Agency.
• Intelligence agencies: There are a set of agencies responsible for fighting terrorism in India. A major agency utilized for gathering cross border information is the Research and Analysis wing(RAW)- the external intelligence agency. The Intelligence Bureau(IB), a division of the home affairs ministry is responsible for collecting intelligence information inside India
. • NATGRID: National Intelligence Grid is an intelligence grid interconnecting certain agencies of the government of India to collect and share intelligence that could be used by the intelligence agencies of various departments.
• CAPF: Centre Armed Police Forces are used extensively in Maoist areas , Kashmir and North-east.
Terrorism in India poses a significant threat to the people of India. Ideologies and brain drain are among one of the important thing to keep in mind as causes of this crime. Terrorist attacks leave deterrent effects on society, political instability for the government and loss to the economy, in form of national and international business. Terrorism is very dangerous as it not only kills the human life but also the infrastructure, industry, ultimately damages its overall growth