TROPICAL FOREST

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the western Ghats which borders on the Arabian Sea, the coasts of peninsular India and the larger Assam region of North-East India are home to tropical Evergreen forests of Indian territory. In Odisha State, a half evergreen forest is larger than evergreen formation mainly because evergreen forests appear to become semi-evergreen, with human contact. Small traces of evergreen forests are found. Between the three main evergreen forest regions there are significant variations.

The monsoon woods of the Western Ghats are present both at the western (ghat) edge of the coast and in less precipitation at the eastern side. There are many tree species of high commercial value in these forests, but they have now been removed from many areas. There are an immense amount of plants in evergreen forests; at least 60 percent of the upper cotton trees are species that make up not more than 1 % of the total number individually. The evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of south West India, perhaps in areas once cleared for transporting agriculture, are battered across streams or in underdrained hollows.

North-east India is traditionally a tropical area (which covers Assam, Nagaland, Manipur , Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya as well as Arunachal Pradesh’s plains) up to 900 metres (3,000 ft.) wide. It comprises evergreen and semi-eternal trees, wet feed trees of monsoon, riparian woodland, swamps with wildlife and pastures. The Assam Valley, the foothills of the eastern and lower Himalayan Hills and the Meghalayan, Mizoram and Manipur Forest are found to have evergreen forests, where the rainfall exceeds 2300 mm (91 in) per year.

The Andaman Islands and the Nicobar are inhabited by tropical and evergreen forests and rainforests and by tropical monsoon forests. The Keruing Wood dominate the hilly areas, while on some islands in the southern parts of the archipelago Dipterocare Kerrii is predominant. Andaman Redwood and Terminalia spp. prevail in its monsoon forests. Tropical forests in the eastern part of India contrast fully with Western Himalayan pine and coniferous trees. India’s natural cover differs in altitude: these evergreen forests are surrounded by high Alpine mountains close to the snowline and the dense forests of low-lying trees.

The northern plains of India, the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers, and the Thar Desert to the west, the Sundarbans, the marshy swamplands, the Ganges Delta and the Brahmaputra to the east; the Deccan Plateau, lying at the rainy shadows of the thick hills and the western ghats. These forests host 350 mammal species, 2,100 types of birds, nearly 350 reptile and countless insect species, both local and migrating. Environmental sustainability is maintained and our networks of support for life — water, air and land are protected. It helps to conserve plant and animal genetic diversity for better species growth. From the earliest times, the need to protect the climate and forests has been exercised. The forests were recently demarcated by the managers and prince-rulers as private protected. Today, many of the forested areas form the base of the shrines and parks of India. Nevertheless, the growing population, hunting and invasion continue to threaten the forest lands of India.

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