Indian Constitution is the longest Constitution in the world. It’s because india has several religions. Each state differs from its religion and language with the other. Indian Constitution contains 395 articles and 8 schedules and is about 1,45,000 words making it the longest national Constitution to be adopted. We have seven fundamentals rights in our Constitution. Let us now know each of them.
Fundamental rights are written in the third part of the Constitution. The fundamental rights can be defined as the basic human rights. The main prospective behind these seven fundamental rights was to preserve the idea of equality. Let us know each one of the seven fundamental rights clearly.
Right to Equality
Right to equality can be simply explained as the right to live with equal opportunities. It includes equality before law, prevents or prohibits discrimination on various grounds like caste, religion, birth place, race and gender. It also includes untouchability, equality of opportunity in employment.
Article 14 guarantees equality before law as well as equal protection of the law to all people within the territory of India. Article 15 prohibits discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. Article 16 guarantees equality of opportunity in matters of public employment and prevents the State from discriminating against anyone in matters of employment on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, place of residence or any of them. Article 17 abolishes the practice of Untouchability in any form, making it an offense punishable by law. Article 18 prohibits the State from conferring any titles other than military or academic distinctions, and the citizens of India cannot accept titles from a foreign state.
Right to Freedom
Article 19 guarantees six freedoms in the nature of civil rights, which are available only to citizens of India. These include the freedom of speech and expression, freedom of assembly without arms, freedom of association, freedom of movement throughout the territory of our country, freedom to reside and settle in any part of the country of India and the freedom to practice any profession.
There are also some restrictions on these freedom rights to avoid conflicts.
Right against Exploitation
The right against exploitation is contained in articles 23-24. It contains some provisions to prevent exploitation of the weaker sections of the society by individuals or the State.
Article 23 prohibits human trafficking, making it an offence punishable by law, and also prohibits forced labour or any act of compelling a person to work without wages where he was legally entitled not to work or to receive remuneration for it. Article 24 prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in factories, mines and other hazardous jobs.
Right to Freedom of Religion
the right to Freedom of Religion is explained in the articles 25-28. It provides religious freedom to all Indians.
Article 25 guarantees all persons freedom of conscience and the right to preach, practice and propagate any religion of their choice. Article 26 guarantees all religious denominations and sects, subject to public order, morality and health, to manage their own affairs in matters of religion, set up institutions of their own for charitable or religious purposes, and own, acquire and manage a property in accordance with law. Article 27 guarantees that no person can be compelled to pay taxes for the promotion of any particular religion or religious institution. Article 28 prohibits religious instruction in a wholly State-funded educational institution, and educational institutions receiving aid from the State cannot compel any of their members to receive religious instruction or attend religious worship without their (or their guardian’s) consent.
Right to Education and Culture
It is explained in articles 29 and 30. This right is to protect the rights of cultural, linguistic and religious minorities, by enabling them to conserve their heritage and protecting them against discrimination.
Article 29 grants any section of citizens having a distinct language, script culture of its own, the right to conserve and develop the same, and thus safeguards the rights of minorities by preventing the State from imposing any external culture on them. It also prohibits discrimination against any citizen for admission into any educational institutions maintained or aided by the State, on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them. Article 30 confers upon all religious and linguistic minorities the right to set up and administer educational institutions of their choice in order to preserve and develop their own culture, and prohibits the State, while granting aid, from discriminating against any institution on the basis of the fact that it is administered by a religious or cultural minority.
Right to Constitutional Remedies
The Right to Constitutional Remedies empowers citizens to approach the Supreme Court of India to seek enforcement, or protection against infringement, of their Fundamental Rights.
Right to Privacy
Right to privacy is the latest right of our country being recently approved by the supreme court of Iindia. According to this right we are liable to keep our material private and without our permission no one can interfere in our private matter.it applies to all our private material also.
Right to Property was removed from the Indian Constitution in 1978. It is no longer counted as a fundamental right.
Some of the information to make up this article was taken from Wikipedia to provide the information with a great reference and in simple words.