The earth has a specific carrying capacity that once exceeded, can lead to fewer resources for the globe’s population.The world population increases by about 83 million people every year .If this happens, it equates to overpopulation. If populations continue to increase as they are now, there will be about 10 billion people worldwide by 2050.Over 750 million people do not have access to safe drinking water. This has contributed greatly to poor sanitation and spread of diseases especially in third world countries.
Close to 230 million infants below the age of 5 have never been officially registered. This is a third of the current infant population below this age. The number is higher in areas where there is less literacy levels like Sub-Saharan Africa and the South East Asia
To protect the environment, families may be forced to reduce their numbers. This is already happening in some countries where the average number of children per family is 2. This is an initiative with an aim of ensuring that there are enough resources left for survival in the environment.
Asia has 60% of the world population. This is posited by the fact that three of the world’s most populous countries come from Asia. These include China (1.38 billion), India (1.32 billion) and Indonesia (260 million).
The reason India’s population is the second highest in the world is due to having a large proportional population already. The Indian and Chinese civilizations have always had a large population compared with others. The reason for this is because those lands are fertile. Before the industrial revolution, the population had met its maximum viable capacity. But as countries industrialized, the death rates fell, causing population growth which increased demand for resources. However, the increased demand was met with increased supply as more efficient farming techniques were invented.
India has a lot of births (approximately 360,000 per day). However, this can be attributed to its already large population of 1.3 billion. However, it was actually only 2.4 births per woman which is actually a little below the global average of 2.5 births per woman. Israel actually has a higher fertility rate of 3.1 births per woman yet not nearly as many people say that they’re overrun with overpopulation.
We can sort this overpopulation by –
Simply educating men and women about contraception can have a big impact. When Iran introduced a national family planning programme in 1989, its fertility rate fell from 5.6 births per woman to 2.6 in a decade. A similar effort in Rwanda saw a threefold increase in contraception usage in just five years. problem of child marriage is highly prominent in certain countries with high population like India, Pakistan or Bangladesh. A marriage at a tender age leads to a long span for giving birth. Also young age marriage devoid people of the education and awareness required to be sensitive towards and understand the consequences of raising too many children.
Adoption: Some parents do not have any child, despite costly medical treatment. It is advisable that they should adopt orphan children. It will be beneficial to orphan children and children couples. Government should also provide incentives for adopting.
Spreading awareness: People need to be told and made to understand the consequences of having too many children. Government and non-government institutions can carry awareness campaigns informing people how they will be unable to provide good nutrition, education or medical facilities to their children if they have too many. Population is also a reason for illiteracy and diseases and malnutrition and the negative effects of it are required to be communicated to the general public to expand their reasoning and understanding.
Excessive population has various adverse effects including undue pressure on natural resources. More people mean more consumption which in turn means more exploitation of fixed and exhaustible resources. Also population is not a universal challenge. It is specific to nations whose economies have yet not achieved full potential and development. Along with China and India, the African and some Latin countries also see an extremely high population growth rate. Rather China, which is the most populated nation, has achieved a very appreciative control over their growth of population though their ways are highly autocratic and cannot be replicated in other countries.