Soft computing

Soft computing is the use of approximate calculations to provide imprecise but usable solutions to complex computational problems. The approach enables solutions for problems that may be either unsolvable or just too time-consuming to solve with current hardware. Soft computing is sometimes referred to as computational intelligence.Soft computing provides an approach to problem-solving using means other than computers. With the human mind as a role model, soft computing is tolerant of partial truths, uncertainty, imprecision and approximation, unlike traditional computing models. The tolerance of soft computing allows researchers to approach some problems that traditional computing can’t process.

Soft computing uses component fields of study in:

Fuzzy logic

Machine learning

Probabilistic reasoning

Evolutionary computation

Perceptron

Genetic algorithms

Differential algorithms

Support vector machines

Metaheuristics

Swarm intelligence

Ant colony optimization

Particle optimization

Bayesian networks

Artificial neural networks

Expert systems

Although soft computing theory and techniques were first introduced in 1980s, it has now become a major research and study area in automatic control engineering. The techniques of soft computing are nowadays being used successfully in many domestic, commercial, and industrial applications. With the advent of the low-cost and very high performance digital processors and the reduction of the cost of memory chips it is clear that the techniques and application areas of soft computing will continue to expand.

The use of soft computing techniques in coherent communications phase synchronization provides an alternative to analytical or hard computing methods. This paper discusses a novel use of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) for phase synchronization in coherent communications systems utilizing Multiple Phase Shift Keying (MPSK) modulation. A brief overview of the M-PSK digital communications bandpass modulation technique is presented and it’s requisite need for phase synchronization is discussed. We briefly describe the hybrid platform developed by Jang that incorporates fuzzy/neural structures namely the, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interference Systems (ANFIS). We then discuss application of ANFIS to phase estimation for M-PSK. The modeling of both explicit, and implicit phase estimation schemes for M-PSK symbols with unknown structure are discussed. Performance results from simulation of the above scheme is presented.

With the recent advances in computing, the opportunities to translate computational models to more integrated roles in patient treatment are expanding at an exciting rate. One area of considerable development has been directed towards correcting soft tissue deformation within image guided neurosurgery applications. This review captures the efforts that have been undertaken towards enhancing neuronavigation by the integration of soft tissue biomechanical models, imaging and sensing technologies, and algorithmic developments. In addition, the review speaks to the evolving role of modeling frameworks within surgery and concludes with some future directions beyond neurosurgical applications.

Soft computing is, by definition, tolerant of uncertainty, imprecision, partial truth, and approximation. This allows researchers to try to solve problems that aren’t possible to be solved by traditional computational models.

Soft computing is also termed as computational intelligence.

Soft computing is used when the problem isn’t precisely specified, or there isn’t enough information available about the problem statement. Soft computing has numerous applications in real life.

Machine Learning

Machine learning is a part of artificial intelligence that deals with the study of statistical models and algorithms that are fed to the computer systems for computational purposes.

Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy logic, unlike traditional logic, can have multiple values ranging from 0 to 1. Fuzzy logic was developed with the intent that people make decisions based on non-numerical and imprecise information to make decisions.

Probabilistic Reasoning

Probabilistic logic combines logic and probability to deduce solutions for uncertain problems.

Evolutionary Computation

Evolutionary theory is a family of computational algorithms and methodologies that are inspired by biological evolution processes.

Advantages of Soft-computing

Most problems in real life do not offer numerical values for us to work with and find solutions to. Soft-computing solves just this.It aids in finding approximate solutions to problems that do not have definitive answers.Soft-computing, in its essence, is biologically inspired and gets its inspirations from various evolutionary processes. Due to this, the models of soft computing can be

Linguistic

Comprehensible

Fast when computing

Effectivewhile solving real-world issues

The soft-computing models give a lot of flexibility for humans to define real-world problems in computational language. There are various advantages of soft-computing.

The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial.

Soft computing is now in trend and by using this our technology world is growing faster.

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