Allergies and Our blood

Ever heard someone asking about the things you added into the food which you prepared?  Feel a bit annoyed by that remark? Well, don’t be,cause even a small mistake may result as fatal for them..

What exactly are allergies?

The etymology of Allergy i.e ‘Allergie’ which was actually invented by a doctor who actually combined two Greek words, allow,meaning ‘strange’ and ergon which means ‘activity’.  Which means that an allergy,if roughly explained,is any ‘strange activities in your body is an allergy. 

  • Mechanism

So,your body contains some antibodies. What are antibodies? Well,whenever your body has any foreign organism inside it,your body starts to release something called antigens. These antigens have antibodies present on them which will bind the foreign material in order to destroys it. The difference? 1. Antigens are the substance which ‘induce’ the immune response of the body whereas antibodies are the proteins which actually recognise and bind them to the antigens. 

2. Antigens maybe within the bodies of be added externally and the antibodies are always present in the bodies. Suppose you take a Red Blood Cell(RBCs),every blood cell has an antigen on them. Let’s imagine the blood cell to be of A+ve person and the antigen which is present on the cell be of a triangular shape.


How will the antigen be of that cell? The antibody which the body will produce will be exactly opposite,let’s imagine the antibody like a circular or anything which is not triangular intially the antibodies of ‘B’ blood group. Why is it so? So that they don’t fit together! So will the ‘B’ blood group cells make the antibodies of A blood group. What happens if they fit together? The cells die. Which is why people from blood banks are really specific about the ‘blood group’ which the patient belong to. But then..what happens in the case of ‘O’ blood group? The cells  from ‘O’ blood group do not have antigens at  all! So what kind of antibodies will the body produce? The perish  with ‘O’ positive blood produces antibodies of both  ‘A’ and ‘B’ blood group. Wait….this is all  getting very confusing. How am I exactly supposed to know which blood group produces which antibody or whatever it is?!? Well,let’s see below.

Human blood is made of several groups. Not all blood groups are same. What is different  in blood group is usually the antibodies. How are they divided? Let’s see!

  1. A blood group- Has antigens of A blood group-But has antibodies of B blood group
  2. B blood group- Has antigens of B blood group-But has antibodies of A blood group
  3. AB blood group-Has antigens of both A and B blood group-but has no antibodies
  4. O blood group- has no antigens-but has antibodies of both A and B blood groups

Now,you might have many questions regarding the above explanations. Don’t worry,every question will be cleared!

O blood group has both that antigens.Supposing,if  we are to transfuse the  blood to a person with A blood group,why doesn’t the antibody not kill the cell?

The answer can be derived with two possibilities. Firstly,whenever there is a transfusion of blood,it is very rare that antibodies get transfused. So, normally it is quite safe. Secondly,even if the antibody did manage to get inside,the antibody will die soon due to the difference,maybe from the environment of the other factors affecting it.

Photo by Amornthep Srina from Pexels

How is the blood group negative or positive determined? Whether the blood group is positive or negative is determined through something called the Antigen D. The presence of this antigen D means that the blood is positive and if the presence is not seen,then the blood is said to be negative. Hematology (the study of blood) is quite complicated and even today,many mysteries are yet to be disclosed. Why so? Did you think that only 8 blood groups exist?( A+ve,A-ve,B+ve,B-ve,AB+ve,AB-ve,O+ve,O-ve)

Then you are quite wrong,because according to a research,around 400 types of blood groups have been found till today,and the hematologists,are still studying very hard about the various properties of our blood and the various elements it contains.

Now,how does this affect  allergies?

Antibodies,also known as Immunoglobulins are the ones which are sent when there is an foreign material identified by the body. It is very helpful due to its immunological memory which remembers the foreign organism for a long time,and when the same material again comes in contact with the material,the body knows how to kill it. This is extremely smart in the cases of pathogens(disease causing microbes). The problem arises when a micro organism is repaired by,let’s take pollen grain for example. Pollen grains are freely present in the atmosphere. When the pollen is inhaled through respiration,the body thinks the pollen to be a foreign material and produces large amounts of antibodies. This antibodies rush towards,where the pollen is present. Its main motive is to  either destroy or remove the foreign material form the body. So the antibodies bind the pollen,and during this process,many side effects take place for eg. rashes,runny nose, constant sneezing(because the body wants the pollen out of the it’s system) etc. These are just minor allergies,some may develop some major effects which may be drastic enough to make one hospitalized. It may also be the case when an object,which was previously in contact with the body may suddenly be recognised as a foreign body and again,the process repeats. Some allergies may even turn out to be hereditary.

One is always advise to consult a doctor if suffering through any unusual reactions after the contact of anything. If not,one must make a note about what exactly is the factor which is causing the body to react as such,and try to avoid it

The concept which was written over here are usually temporary and soon the body adapts itself. But if you experience constant trouble with any material,try to avoid the contact with it and consult a doctor to prevent any further consequences

The research is still going on about what exactly does our body heal ourself,or why our brain releases certain fluids at certain situations,but these are are speculations and theories and are believed to make and define things in an easier way. There might be a time in future when we crack the code and get to know what exactly happens inside our bodies. Till then,to wonder is all we can do!!

Categories: Science