Internet of Things (IoT)What it is and why it mattersThe Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a vast number of “things” that are connected to the internet so they can share data with other things – IoT applications, connected devices, industrial machines and more. Internet-connected devices use built-in sensors to collect data and, in some cases, act on it. IoT connected devices and machines can improve how we work and live. Real-world Internet of Things examples range from a smart home that automatically adjusts heating and lighting to a smart factory that monitors industrial machines to look for problems, then automatically adjusts to avoid failures.
Today’s World Who Uses It How It Works Next Steps History of the Internet of Things.The term “Internet of Things” was coined by entrepreneur Kevin Ashton, one of the founders of the Auto-ID Center at MIT. Ashton was part of a team that discovered how to link objects to the internet through an RFID tag. He first used the phrase “Internet of Things” in a 1999 presentation – and it has stuck around ever since.Ashton may have been first to use the term Internet of Things, but the concept of connected devices – particularly connected machines – has been around for a long time. For example, machines have been communicating with each other since the first electric telegraphs were developed in the late 1830s. Other technologies that fed into IoT were radio voice transmissions, wireless (Wi-Fi) technologies and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software. Then in 1982, a modified Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University became the first connected smart appliance. Using the university’s local ethernet or ARPANET – a precursor to today’s internet – students could find out which drinks were stocked, and whether they were cold.
This research identifies the possible effects on society and the Internet of Things (IOT) represents a new age of computing where every imagination that you can consider item is ready with, or connected to a crafty devices allowing facts series and communication through the Internet. A systematic literature evaluation diagnosed four key privacy topics that represent problems associated with the gathering of society’ information thru the IOT: unauthorized investigation, out of control information technology and use, inadequate authentication and records security dangers. It has additionally found out tendencies, possibilities of IOT. At the identical time, but, the Internet of Things increases considerable challenges that could stand inside the manner of accumulating its potential profits. Attention-grabbing captions about the hacking of Internet-connected devices, research worries, and privacy suspicions have already got took public attention. Technical challenges remain and new approach, legal and improvement challenges are emerging. This specific report is aimed to help the Internet Society network navigate the communicate surrounding the Internet of Things in mild of the tough expectations approximately its potentials and dangers. The Internet of Things entails a wide set of ideas which are complicated and tangled from one of a kind viewpoints.
An example of a simple IOT, a tool now available in some houses which has a sensor and might decide when humans occupy positive rooms and regulate levels of heating, lighting fixtures and different capabilities in the house therefore. By broadening the Internet from “a network of interconnected computers to a community of interconnected items” (Commission of the European Communities 2009), the IOT will include a massive and complex network of gadgets. These gadgets will consist of sensors to degree the surroundings around them, actuators which physically act lower back into their environment consisting of commencing a door, processors to deal with and shop the extensive statistics generated, nodes to relay the information and coordinators to assist control units of those additives. Through this, it has the likely to especially enlarge, increase or even shift the relationship between humans and the world around them. In truth, many are hoping that the IOT will play a pivotal function in addressing many of today’s communal challenges which include a superior year’s society, deforestation, site visitors mobbing and recyclability.
Any device, if it has an on and off switch then chances are it can be a part of the IoT. Very often the connected devices will have an I.P address. With Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), assigning an IP address to billions of devices has become very much feasible.
Examples of ‘things’ which can be connected to internet include:
- Connected Wearables – Smartwatches, Smart glasses, fitness bands etc.
- Connected Homes – connecting household appliances to the network.
- Connected Cars – vehicles that are connected to the internet.
- Connected Cities – smart meters which analyse usage of water, gas, electricity etc connect cities to IoT
Operationally this means that we can define the Internet of Things as the seamless flow between the –
- BAN (body area network): wearables,
- LAN (local area network): smart home,
- WAN (wide area network): connected car, and
- VWAN (very wide area network): the smart city.
While security considerations are not new in the context of information technology, the attributes of many IoT implementations present new and unique security challenges. Addressing these challenges and ensuring security in IoT products and services must be a fundamental priority.Users need to trust that IoT devices and related data services are secure from vulnerabilities, especially as this technology become more pervasive and integrated into our daily lives. Poorly secured IoT devices and services can serve as potential entry points for cyber attack and expose user data to theft by leaving data streams inadequately protected.
The interconnected nature of IoT devices means that every poorly secured device that is connected online potentially affects the security and resilience of the Internet globally. This challenge is amplified by other considerations like the mass-scale deployment of homogenous IoT devices, the ability of some devices to automatically connect to other devices, and the likelihood of fielding these devices in unsecure environments.
A lightbulb that can be switched on using a smartphone app is an IoT device, as is a motion sensor or a smart thermostat in your office or a connected streetlight. An IoT device could be as fluffy as a child’s toy or as serious as a driverless truck. Some larger objects may themselves be filled with many smaller IoT components, such as a jet engine that’s now filled with thousands of sensors collecting and transmitting data back to make sure it is operating efficiently. At an even bigger scale, smart cities projects are filling entire regions with sensors to help us understand and control the environment.
One key application of a smart home is to provide assistance for those with disabilities and elderly individuals. These home systems use assistive technology to accommodate an owner’s specific disabilities.Voice control can assist users with sight and mobility limitations while alert systems can be connected directly to cochlear implants worn by hearing-impaired users.They can also be equipped with additional safety features. These features can include sensors that monitor for medical emergencies such as falls or seizures.Smart home technology applied in this way can provide users with more freedom and a higher quality of life.
The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is an application of the IoT for medical and health related purposes, data collection and analysis for research, and monitoring.The IoMT has been referenced as “Smart Healthcare”,as the technology for creating a digitized healthcare system, connecting available medical resources and healthcare services.IoT devices can be used to enable remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems. These health monitoring devices can range from blood pressure and heart rate monitors to advanced devices capable of monitoring specialized implants, such as pacemakers, Fitbit electronic wristbands, or advanced hearing aids. Some hospitals have begun implementing “smart beds” that can detect when they are occupied and when a patient is attempting to get up. It can also adjust itself to ensure appropriate pressure and support is applied to the patient without the manual interaction of nurses. A 2015 Goldman Sachs report indicated that healthcare IoT devices “can save the United States more than $300 billion in annual healthcare expenditures by increasing revenue and decreasing cost.”Moreover, the use of mobile devices to support medical follow-up led to the creation of ‘m-health’, used analyzed health statistics.”
The IoT can assist in the integration of communications, control, and information processing across various transportation systems. Application of the IoT extends to all aspects of transportation systems (i.e. the vehicle,the infrastructure, and the driver or user). Dynamic interaction between these components of a transport system enables inter- and intra-vehicular communication,smart traffic control, smart parking, electronic toll collection systems, logistics and fleet management, vehicle control, safety, and road assistance.In Logistics and Fleet Management, for example, an IoT platform can continuously monitor the location and conditions of cargo and assets via wireless sensors and send specific alerts when management exceptions occur (delays, damages, thefts, etc.). This can only be possible with IoT technology and its seamless connectivity among devices. Sensors such as GPS, Humidity, and Temperature send data to the IoT platform and then the data is analyzed and then sent to the users. This way, users can track the real-time status of vehicles and can make appropriate decisions. If combined with Machine Learning, then it also helps in reducing traffic accidents by introducing drowsiness alerts to drivers and providing self-driven cars too.
Also known as IIoT, industrial IoT devices acquire and analyze data from connected equipment, operational technology (OT), locations and people. Combined with operational technology (OT) monitoring devices, IIoT helps regulate and monitor industrial systems.Also, the same implementation can be carried out for automated record updates of asset placement in industrial storage units as the size of the assets can vary from a small screw till the whole motor spare part and misplacement of such assets can cause a percentile loss of manpower time and money.
Digital control systems to automate process controls, operator tools and service information systems to optimize plant safety and security are within the purview of the IoT. But it also extends itself to asset management via predictive maintenance, statistical evaluation, and measurements to maximize reliability. Industrial management systems can also be integrated with smart grids, enabling real-time energy optimization. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization, health and safety management, and other functions are provided by a large number of networked sensors.
There are numerous IoT applications in farming such as collecting data on temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, pest infestation, and soil content. This data can be used to automate farming techniques, take informed decisions to improve quality and quantity, minimise risk and waste, and reduce effort required to manage crops. For example, farmers can now monitor soil temperature and moisture from afar, and even apply IoT-acquired data to precision fertilisation programs.
Environmental monitoring applications of the IoT typically use sensors to assist in environmental protection by monitoring air or water quality, atmospheric or soil conditions, and can even include areas like monitoring the movements of wildlife and their habitats. Development of resource-constrained devices connected to the Internet also means that other applications like earthquake or tsunami early-warning systems can also be used by emergency services to provide more effective aid. IoT devices in this application typically span a large geographic area and can also be mobile.It has been argued that the standardization IoT brings to wireless sensing will revolutionize this area.
Internet of things is a forthcoming technology that takes benefit of internet to control or monitor devices, automobiles and other physical things associated to the internet. IOT provides users the capability to control more than digital things facilely over the cyber world. Increasingly investigators and inventors focuses on researching innovative IOT projects that could benefit the human beings and the society. From the literature review and the case study, it can be concluded that the experts all consent that the IOT will have generously huge impacts on the future. But how astronomically immense this impact will be is still a question. From the literature review, it already show that the connected customer experience is critical for the companies and the companies can make advantage of these data in the Incipient Product Development. And from the literature, it is concluded that the marketing power of the IOT is connectivity for better customer interactivity. As of mutual literature review and the case study, it can show that the IOT technology is introduced in the products. From the case study, it validates the theory in the literature review that digitalization and the IOT will dispense long term efficiencies and magnification opportunities in industries. And it withal substantiates that the companies could receive tremendous volume of the data from the customers. Ergo, the marketing power of the Internet of Things is connectivity for better customer interactivity. Albeit the technology of IOT is still developing, a plethora of pioneers in the market already commenced to utilize this incipient technology. The current IOT projects have been proposed on subsisting system amendments and incipient innovative solutions to different quandaries. With the emerging possibility of connecting more and more hardware to the cyber world, IOT researches are never ending and it will benefit to the mankind more and more in the future. It is exhilarating to visually perceive how the world will be transmuted by IOT.