The Provisional Government of Free India (or, more simply, Azad Hind) was an Indian Temporary Government created during the Second World War in Japanese occupied Singapore, supported by the Empire of Japan and, in large measure, by it. The government was formed in October 1943.
It became part of an outside Indian nationalist movement in the 1940s in order to ally with Axis forces to free India from the British government. It was set up in exile with financial, military and political support from Imperial Japan during the latter part of the Second World War in Singapore. Created on October 21 1943, Subha Chandra Bose was influenced by the idea of government and the head of state. In southeast Asian British Colonial territory, the government declared control over Indian civil and military staff in Japan and the Indian National Army to collapse on the Japanese drive towards India.
The Azad Hind Government had its own currency, court and civil code and gave greater credibility to the war for independence against the British, in the eyes of some Indians. In 1943, the Japanese occupying Andaman and Nicobar Islands also handed over nominees to Japan, while the government remained dependent on support from Japan.
Free India declared war on the Indo-Burma Front immediately following the establishment of the provisional government. His army, the Indian National Army, was engaged in the Imphal-Kohima sector with the British Indian Army and allied forces. The INA had its first major operation at the imphal war, where it violated the British defences at Kohima under the command of the Japanese Fiveth Army until the Allies suffered a disastrous defeat and Allied air superiority, as well as compromised supply lines force the Japanese and the INA to retire. The INA was the first to make a major effort to fight Imphal.
Azad Hind ‘s presence coincided primarily with the Indian National Army’s presence. Although the government itself continued to reassume the competence of the British before the end of the war before the civil administration of the Andaman Islands, the small force of Azad Hind actually came to an end with the surrender of the latest major INA troops in the area of Rangoon. Bose ‘s death is seen as the culmination of the whole movement of Azad Hin.
Azad Hind ‘s legacy is however subject to judgement. The Raj saw the transformation from traitors and allies of Azad Hind ‘s view into “the strongest of the patriots” with alarm after the battle. Given the wave of militant nationalism which was sweeping through India and the sorrow and rebellion it inspired, the overall purpose of the British Indian Army was ultimately successful in fostering popular frustration and rebellion in order to overthrow the Raj.
Two conferences of Indian expatriates from across South East Asia can be associated with the direct roots of Azad Hind, the first one taking place in Tokyo in March 1942. The Indian Independence League was formed as a first step towards an independent Indian state that is politically allied with the Empire of Japan, in the course of this conference called by Rash Behari Bose, an Indian expatriate living in Japan. Rash also moved to establish a kind of army of independence that helped push British people from India – later on the Indian National Army. Later that year, Subhas Chandra Bose was invited to participate in the League Leadership at a second conference in Bangkok. At the time, Bose stayed in Germany and went on the submarine to Japan.
Rash Behari Bose, who was already old when the League was formed, had trouble organising the League and failed to obtain resources to create the Nazi Army. As president of the Indian Independence League, Chandra Bose was replaced by Subhas. There is some debate as to whether he has stepped down through his volition or by the Japanese, whose involvement the Indian nationalists wanted to become more strong and centred.
In a bid to bring British citizens out of the grasp of the sub-continent, Bose arrived in Tokyo on 13 June 1943 and announced his intent to launch an attack against eastern India provinces. Bose arrived in Singapore on 2 July and formally declared in October 1943 that the Provisional Government of Free India would be formed. Subha declared: “This is the duty of the temporary administration to begin and lead the fight to expel the British and their allies from the south of India,” describing the tasks of this new political base. With the assistance of Japanese, Bose formally took command of Rash Bose, the demoralised and undermined Indian National Army. He recruited Indian civilians living in South-East Asia occupied by Japanese, and integrated numerous Indian soldiers from British forces into INA brigades in Singapore, Malaya and Hong Kong.
A cabinet headed by the Subhas Chandra Bose as head of state, the prime minister, the minister for war and foreign affairs consists of the Provisional Government of Free India.
The Minister in Charge of the Women’s Organization was Captain Dr Lakshmi Swaminadhan. She was the head of a Rani Jhansi Battalion, a women’s soldier brigade fighting for the Indian National Armed Forces. This women’s regiment was very visionary for a regular Asian army; it was the first of its kind in the world. Before she gave up her practise in leadership of the Jhansi Regiment Rani troops, Dr Lakshmi was one of the most prominent and active gynaecologists in Singapore.