The Provisional Government of Free India (or, more simply, Azad Hind) was an Indian Temporary Government created during the Second World War in Japanese occupied Singapore, supported by the Empire of Japan and, in large measure, by it. The government was formed in October 1943.
The provisional government consisted of a cabinet ministry acting in a Subhas Bose advisory committee, who was called ‘Netaji’ and certainly the dominant figure in the interim administration. He practised virtual authoritarian control over the administration and the army. Regarding first war statements released by the government, “the Cabinet was not unanimous in its decision to incorporate the USA. Bose had shown impatience and annoyance-his absolute authority was never at all in any doubt at the time: the Cabinet had no liability and only could provide advice.
BOSE travelled to Tokyo at the end of Oct., 1943 as an observer to the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity-Sphere of Japan to participate in the Greater East Asia conferences. The conferences were not held as a delegate because India had been legally removed from Japan ‘s concept of Greater East Asia. By the end of the meeting, the government of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which the Imperial Japan Navy captured earliest in war had been given to Azad Hind.
Military Azad Hind, in the form of the INA had some success against the British, and moved to the city of Imphal in eastern India with the Japanese army. Plans to march towards Delhi, to win support and new recruits, have both been stopped since the moonlight season started and Imphal wasn’t captured. British bombing severely reduced morality and the Japanese started their withdrawal from India along with INA forces.
Besides the losses of the INA, in the winter of 1944–1945, the troops left to protect Rangoon without the help of the Japanese faced a daunting challenge. In order to be field commander, Loganathan was transferred to the Andaman Islands. In the absence of any other police force or military force during the time between Japanese departure and arrival of the British, the INA garrison was approximately 6,000 strong and occupied the Burmese capital. He was effective in holding law and order to the degree that during the duration of 24 April to 4 May 1945, there was no single case of dacoity or pillaging recorded.
Almost all the Provisional Government territory was situated in the Andaman Islands while some control over Indian enclaves in Japanese occupied territories was authorised by the Provisional Government. The provisional civilian government has never been named in INA occupied areas; instead it has been controlled by Japanese military authority and shared by the Japanese and Indian forces, responsibility for the management of the occupied areas of India.
The INA was left without support from the Japanese to defend[citation required] Rangoon against British advance. The government of Azad Hind, which had formed in the Andaman and the Nicobar Insels, collapsed when the island’s guards, Japanese and Indian, were defeated and the islands were recovered. Bose was suggested to leave Burma to begin its fight for Indian independence. Bose himself was supposedly killed in a crash from Taiwan to avoid Russia. With the deaths of the Axis, the INA and Bose vanishing in 1945, the provisional government of Free India ceased to exist.
The soldiers who controlled the Indian National Army brigades were captured by the British as prisoners of war. A number of these inmates, including Colonel Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon, were brought to India and convicted by British courts for trace.
Clement Attlee, who was British Prime Minister during India’s Independence, represents the true degree to which the INA ‘s actions affected the decision to quit India. Attlee cites many factors, including the INA operations of Subhas Chandra Bose, which undermined the very base in India of the British Empire, and the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny, which led the British to recognise that Indian army support could not be relied on.