if we talk about north region or south region both of them are full with resources but yeah southern hemisphere’s weather is more harsh then northen hemisphere. Recently Arctic region is in the news due to increasing of its geopolitical importance. From here three main routes begins which we know by the name northen sea route, northwest passage and northen sea route. The most importent route is northen sea route, in this we’ll talk about it’s geopolitical route but first let’s talk about Arctic council.
Arctic council and it’s role- It needs to have organization, group or council to manage it’s region’s affairs. Till 1996 there was no common forum of Arctic countries for any sort of cooperation on arctic affairs. Enviornment in Arctic region is vulnerable but due to climate change and global warming there could be in increase of destruction between countries, that’s why government made it clear that there should be a responsible council so in between of 1989’s september after the Finland government’s initiative, the Arctic countries met for the first time at Rovaniemi, Finland, in 1989 with an objective to form an organisation for safeguarding the Arctic enviornment. Countries which are situated around or inhabiting one of the earth’s poles are called circumpolar countries. In subsquent years many scientific and technical reports were prepared on the Arctic issues with information gathering purpose. After analyzing these reports, ‘Arctic Enviornmental protection strategy’ was developed. This strategy represents 8 Arctic countries cooperative efforts which are Canada, Iceland, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Russia, Denmark and USA. In 1996, the representative of Arctic countries met at Ottawa, Canada and signed a declaration of cooperation. Arctic council handles enviornmental, social, cultural and geopolitical affairs in the Arctic region. Other than these 8 countries, China is yet another important contender in the Arctic region. Even without being a member of council, China desperate to increase his influence in the region. Major players in the decisions are USA, Russia and China. Russia has built as many as 50 military bases in the Arctic region. China has trade related intrests in the Northen Sea Route through Arctic region. USA made his presence by putting his army in Alaska and Greenland.
Due to melting of glaciers it is getting bit easy for all the powerful countries who want the dominance on Northen sea route due to the shorter time in sea trade and more profit but still it looks like it is hard for all the countries to takeover the control of Arctic sea route in their hands for more business and naval security.