In Canada,the Criminal Code defines terrorism as an act committed “in whole or in part for a political, religious or ideological purpose, objective or cause” with the intention of intimidating the public “…with regard to its security, including its economic security, or compelling a person, a government or a domestic or an international organization to do or to refrain from doing any act.” Activities recognized as criminal within this context include death and bodily harm with the use of violence; endangering a person’s life; risks posed to the health and safety of the public; significant property damage; and interference or disruption of essential services, facilities or systems.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” .
The Indian National Security Guard Act, 1986, defines a ‘Terrorist‘ as: “Terrorist means any person who with intent to overawe the Government as by law established or to strike terror in the people or any section of the people, does any act or thing by using bomb, dynamite or other explosive substance or inflammable substances or firearms or other lethal weapons or poisons or noxious gases or other substances (whether biological or otherwise) of a hazardous nature, in such a manner as to cause or as is likely to cause, death or injuries to any person or persons or damage to or destruction of property, or disruption of any supplies or services essential to the life of community.”
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act, 1985, (TADA) does not define who a “terrorist” is but defines a “terrorist” act as follows: “Whoever with intent to overawe the Government as by law established or to strike terror in the people or any section of people or alienate any section of the people or to adversely affect the harmony amongst different sections of the people does any act or thing by using bombs, dynamite or other explosive substances or inflammable substances or firearms or other lethal weapons or poisons or noxious gases or other chemicals or any other substances (whether biological or otherwise) of a hazardous nature in such manner as to cause, or as is likely to cause, death of, or injuries to, any person or persons or damage to, or destruction of property or disruption of any supplies or services essential to the life of the community, commits a terrorist act.
We have discussed the definitions in detail to have a clear understanding of the concept.
Methods used by terrorists:-
- Use of conventional arms
Refer for details-:https://www.unodc.org/images/odccp/terrorism_weapons_conventional.html
3. Cyber terrorism
5. Lone wolf attacks
6. Nuclear terrorism
7. Agro terrorism
8. Bombings etc
Objectives of terrorist:-
- To instill fear in people and the government at large
- To attract attention and gain popularity
- Spread radicalisation and polarisation
- To make the government fulfill their demands
- To propagate their ideology and provoke the youth
- Breakdown of law and order
- Humiliating a state of its defense capability
- Spread separatist chauvinism
The difference between a terrorist and a freedom fighter is a matter of perspective: it all depends on the observer and the verdict of historyPentii Likola