Classification of Child Abuse:

Amid the consequences of child abuse remain the same; it became necessary to address the different types of Child Abuse to not only just to understand their occurrence, but to also derive a clear idea to distinguish its different types so at the end eventually became possible to find necessary solution.


On 2006, the World Health Organization distinguishes four types of child ill-treatment: physical abuse; sexual abuse; emotional (or psychological) abuse; and neglect.

Physical Child Abuse
Physical abuse is the results in potential physical harm from a confrontation or an interaction, which is within the control of a parent or a person in a position of power or authority to a child. The resultant injuries are considered abuse irrespective of whether the intent of the action was to cause hurt against the child. Physical abuse often does not only happen in isolation, but as part of a constellation of behaviours including authoritarian control, anxiety-provoking behaviour, and a lack of parental warmth. WHO defines physical abuse as: Intentional use of physical force against the kid that results in resulting in – harm for the child’s health, survival, development or dignity. It includes hitting, beating, kicking, shaking, biting, strangling, scalding, burning, poisoning and suffocating. Physical violence against children in the home is inflicted with the object of punishing. Evidence of physical abuse are- Unexplained Bruises, welts or cuts etc, even fearful or shy behaviour etc.

Sexual child Abuse
It was an involvement of a child in a sexual activity that he/she does not fully understand and approve of the act. Most importantly the child is naturally uninformed of the sexual activity and while being developmentally was not prepared for the act, is unable to give an informed consent. In other words, it refers to an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. It involves- Kissing or holding in a sexual manner, forcing to touch genital areas, Vaginal or Anal Intercourse, Sexual Exploitation, Incest and Rape. Non-contact type are as follows: Obscene Remarks, Virtual Sex, Online Solicitation, Exposed to Pornography, Sexually intrusive comments, Voyeurism.
Signs in child whether she/he is exposed to it are as follows- The child might display knowledge or interest in sexual, acts inappropriate to his or her age, even seductive behaviour or shows the unusual behaviour- either being aggressive or very passive. •Physical signs – A child may have difficulty in sitting or standing, or have stained, bloody or torn underclothes. Swelling, bruises, or bleeding in the private area is a red flag. • Caregiver signs – The caregiver may be unusually controlling and protective of the child, limiting contact with other children and adults.


Emotional Abuse (psychological)
It often observed as a pattern of behaviour that hampers the child’s emotional development, making it extremely difficult to prove. The lack of evidence in the case of Emotional child Abuse it is considered as a major challenge to the existing Child Protection System. Emotional Abuse could be always present when any other forms of abuses are identified in a child. It involves– Isolation or Exclusion of a Child, stigmatising a Child, Failure to provide a supportive environment, Caregivers not responding to a child’s emotional needs, blackmailing a Child. Signs of child emotional abuse are– Excessive Shyness and Fear, Behavioural Extremes, Antisocial Behaviour, Inappropriate Age Behaviour.


Neglect
It is kind of an abuse which involves depriving a child of adequate food, clothing, shelter, supervision, medical care and education. Neglect also harms children although it is more about being inactive and not doing something than the previous forms of abuse, which are more active. It is when parent or other person with responsibility for the child, to provide needed food, clothing, shelter, medical care, or supervision to the degree that the child’s health, safety or well-being may be threatened with harm. Neglect means lack of attention from the people surrounding a child, and the non-provision of the relevant and adequate necessities for the child’s survival, which would be a lack of attention, love, and nurturing while growing up. Signs involves in this are- Child seems to be unsupervised, Child may appear to have consistently bad hygiene, the child might show troublesome, disruptive behaviour.

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