Taylor’s Scientific Management, as it is propularly known as, was given by Frederick Taylor who was an American mechanical engineer and brought about engineer’s workpoint at the workplace and applied engineering principles at the workplace. He was the first to look at work and productivity scientifically. He was known as the Father of Scientific Management.
Taylor’s Scientific Management provides ways of efficiently performing any job. He had a belief that there were universal laws required for efficiency at workplace and these laws were independent from human judgement. The main role of Scientific Management was to find one best way of performing job with as much efficiency as possible.
Taylor’s Scientific Management theory is as follows:
- Science not Rule of Thumb- This means that Taylor wanted each specific job of any project should be studied scientifically to ensure that the best way of doing that particular job is found out. The main aim, according to Taylor, was to describe the manner in which each job will be performed in a repetitive way so that everyone follows it and can become efficient in performing the job.
- Scientifically train employees- Each employee should be taught the method of performing that particular task and each of them will have to follow the exact same way in which it is taught to them. This will ensure that workers will be paid for doing that task and not for thinking.
- Ensuring that most efficient ways of working is used- Taylor ensured that the most efficient ways of working is used by focussing on two things- firstly, monitoring production of workers to ensure their efficiency and secondly, co-operate with workers to ensure that they are following the exact same way of performing that task as trained to them. The main aim here is to maximize the production.
- Dividing work between managers and workers- Taylor suggested equal division of work between managers and the workers and suggested that employees should be responsible for finishing any task as quickly as possible.
- Payment on the basis of result-based system- He suggested that workers should be paid based on the piece-rate system where-in they are paid according to the number of pieces produced in a day.
Advantages of Taylor’s Scientific Theory:
1.Reduction of the cost of production- This theory will reduce cost of production due to the large amount of commodities being produced, economies of scale of production.
2.Better quality of products- Due to proper standardization measures being followed, this system will lead to better quality of products being produced.
3.Benefits of the division of labour- Specialization brings about division of labour as each activity will be headed by a person who is skilled and experienced.
4.Detailed instruction to workers- Under this theory, there is detailed instructions given to workers to perform their task
Criticisms on Taylor’s Scientific Theory:
- Taylor’s scientific theory of management is criticized on the very fact that though the production is increased by following his method of management, it creates a monotonous job and one which has no autonomy.
- Wages do not rise in proportion to the increased profits as they are based on piece-rate system, they feel that they are exploited.
- Workers will always be in a hurry to finish their task for that particular day and this could affect the health of the workers.
- This method to adopt is a colstly one and a huge amount of investment is needed with respect to the planning, standardization of work, work study and training given to workers. It will lead to increase in overhead cost.
To conclude, this is the scientific theory which Taylor thought of.